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Pregnancy Care Guidelines

26 Risk of pre-eclampsia

Identifying women with risk factors for or clinical signs of pre-eclampsia allows timely provision of advice on prevention and symptoms that may indicate a need for additional care. Antenatal care also provides an opportunity to discuss long-term preventive strategies with women who develop pre-eclampsia.

26.1 Background

26.1.1 Features of pre-eclampsia

Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are described in Section 24.1. In pre-eclampsia, hypertension is accompanied by one or more of the following features (Lowe et al 2015):

  • impaired kidney or liver function
  • haematological involvement
  • neurological symptoms (persistent headache, visual disturbances, stroke, convulsions)
  • pulmonary oedema
  • fetal growth restriction and/or
  • placental abruption.

Pre-eclampsia is a progressive disorder that worsens if pregnancy continues (Lowe et al 2015). Birth of the baby is the definitive treatment and is followed by resolution, generally over a few days but sometimes much longer (Lowe et al 2015). Decisions about management (eg induction/caesarean section or continuation of the pregnancy) are based on maternal and fetal factors (eg gestational age).

26.1.2 Prevalence of pre-eclampsia

Australian studies in a range of settings estimated the incidence of any pre-eclampsia as 3.0–3.3% (Thornton et al 2013; Thornton et al 2016), early onset (<34 weeks) pre-eclampsia as 0.4% (Park et al 2013; Park et al 2015) and late-onset (≥34 weeks) pre-eclampsia as 2.4% (Park et al 2013). Studies were consistent in noting a decrease in prevalence and incidence of pre-eclampsia in Western Australia (Hammond et al 2013; Diouf et al 2016) and New South Wales (Thornton et al 2013; Roberts et al 2015) (no studies from the other states and territories were identified).

The prevalence of pre-eclampsia among specific population groups was influenced by:

  • mental health: a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder conferred a five-fold increased likelihood of having pre-eclampsia (OR 5.28; 95%CI 2.79 to 9.98; p<0.001) (Judd et al 2014) in one study and a three-fold increase in another (9% v 3%; P < 0.0001) (Nguyen et al 2012)
  • body mass index: prevalence was increased among women with BMI >25 (OR 1.97; 95%CI 0.93 to 4.16) (Vanderlelie et al 2016), BMI >30 (OR 2.86; 95%CI 2.54 to 3.22; p=0.001) (Davies-Tuck et al 2016), BMI 30–34.9 (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.48 to 2.73; p<0.001), BMI 35–39.9 (OR 2.41; 95%CI 1.68 to 3.47; p<0.001), BMI 40–44.9 (OR 3.32; 95%CI 2.18 to 5.08; p<0.001), BMI ³45 (OR 3.98; 95%CI 2.56 to 6.19; p<0.001) (Magann et al 2013) or BMI >50 (aOR 3.43; 95%CI 1.72 to 6.84) (Sullivan et al 2015)
  • country of birth: compared with women born in Australia prevalence was lower among women from Western Europe (OR 0.91; 95%CI 0.85 to 0.97), Eastern Europe (OR 0.79; 95%CI 0.67 to 0.94), South Asia (OR 0.58; 95%CI 0.55 to 0.62), East-South-east Asia (OR 0.64; 95%CI 0.58 to 0.71), North Africa and Middle East (OR 0.69;95%CI 0.63 to 0.77) and similar among those from Sub-Saharan Africa (OR 0.95; 95%CI 0.85 to 1.07) and Latin America and the Caribbean (OR1.06; 95%CI 0.90 to 1.26) (Urquia et al 2014).

Prevalence did not appear to be influenced by:

  • maternal age >45 years: there was no significant difference in prevalence between women aged >45 years and <45 years though some suggestion of increase with age (OR 1.86; 95% 0.9 to 3.6; p=0.052) (Carolan et al 2013)
  • refugee background: there was no clear difference in prevalence between refugee background and migration for non-humanitarian reasons among women from North Africa (age-adjusted OR 1.4; 95%CI 0.4 to 4.6; p=0.79), Middle and East Africa (OR 1.1; 95%CI 0.2 to 4.9; p=0.71) and West Africa (4.9% vs 0%) (Gibson-Helm et al 2014)
  • conception by assisted reproductive technology: after stratification by plurality, the difference in gestational hypertension/pre-eclampsia rates between ART and non-ART mothers was not statistically significant, with aOR 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98-1.12) for mothers of singletons (Wang et al 2016)
  • vaginal bleeding in pregnancy: prevalence of pre-eclampsia was not associated with the presence or absence of bleeding (aOR 0.96; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.38) (Smits et al 2012).

26.1.3 Risks associated with pre-eclampsia

Significant pre-eclampsia is associated with serious maternal morbidity and, very rarely, with death. There were nine maternal deaths related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy between 2008 and 2012 in Australia (Humphrey et al 2015), all of which were due to pre-eclampsia and its complications.

Women with complicated pre-eclampsia are more likely to have a caesarean section, stillbirth or neonatal death (Bhattacharya & Campbell 2005). In 2012, hypertension or pre-eclampsia were the reasons for 9.0–13.2% of labour inductions in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and the Northern Territory and 1.3–2.4% of caesarean sections in Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and the Northern Territory. Data collection methods varied and, for other states and territories, were unavailable or unpublished (Hilder et al 2014).

Neonatal complications associated with pre-eclampsia in a large cross-sectional study (n=647,392) (Schneider et al 2011) were small for gestational age, low Apgar scores, acute respiratory distress syndrome and postpartum neonatal hypoglycaemia.

Women who have had pre-eclampsia are at increased long-term risk of chronic hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, thromboembolism, hypothyroidism and impaired memory (Williams 2012).

26.2 Assessing risk of pre-eclampsia

Whether a woman will require additional care (eg more frequent antenatal visits) is based on the presence of risk factors for and clinical features of pre-eclampsia.

26.2.1 Identifying women with risk factors for pre-eclampsia

Factors with an established association with a high risk of pre-eclampsia include (Bartsch et al 2016) (low to high quality evidence):

  • a history of pre-eclampsia (RR 8.4, 95%CI 7.1 to 9.9) (high quality evidence)
  • chronic hypertension (RR 5.1, 95%CI 4.0 to 6.5) (high quality evidence)
  • pre-existing diabetes (RR 3.7; 95%CI 3.1 to 4.3) (moderate quality evidence)
  • autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus (RR 2.5; 95%CI 1.00 to 6.3) or antiphospholipid syndrome (RR 2.8; 95%CI 1.8 to 4.3) (moderate quality evidence)
  • nulliparity (RR 2.1; 95%CI 1.9 to 2.4) (low quality evidence)
  • BMI >30 (RR 2.8; 95% 2.6 to 3.6) (low quality evidence)
  • pre-existing kidney disease (RR 1.8; 95%CI 1.5 to 2.1) (low quality evidence).

Other factors that are associated with increased risk of pre-eclampsia are maternal family history of pre-eclampsia (eg among mother and sisters) (115% increase in risk) (Boyd et al 2013) and increasing maternal glucose levels (aOR for 1 SD increase 1.19; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.28 for 1-hour plasma glucose; 1.21; 95%CI 1.13 to 1.30 for 2-hour plasma glucose)(HAPO Study Cooperative Research Group 2010).

Recommendation

  • Evidence-based
  • 24

Early in pregnancy, assess all women for clinical risk factors for pre-eclampsia. 

Approved by NHMRC in October 2017; expires October 2022 UNDER REVIEW

Findings from systematic reviews provided information on associations with additional factors:

  • cardiovascular factors: women with pre-eclampsia had higher levels of total cholesterol (MD 20.20 mg/dL; 95%CI 8.70 to 31.70; p=0.001), non-HDL-C (MD 29.59 mg/dL; 95%CI 12.13 to 47.06; p=0.001) and triglycerides (MD 80.29 mg/dL; 95%CI 51.45 to 109.13; p<0.0001) in the third trimester (Gallos et al 2013; Spracklen et al 2014), lower levels of HDL-C in the third trimester (MD –8.86 mg/dL; 95%CI –11.50 to –6.21; p<0.0001) (Spracklen et al 2014) and were more likely to have arterial stiffness (SMD 1.62; 95%CI 0.73 to 2.50) (Hausvater et al 2012) than women without pre-eclampsia
  • body mass index: there was a clear association between overweight (aRR 1.70; 95%CI 1.60 to 1.81, P<0.001), obesity (aRR 2.93; 95%CI 2.58 to 3.33, P<0.001) and severe obesity (aRR 4.14; 95%CI 3.61 to 4.75, P<0.001) and risk of pre-eclampsia (Wang et al 2013)
  • mental health: there were significant associations between pre-eclampsia and mental stress (OR 1.49; 95%CI 1.27 to 1.74; P<0.001), work stress (OR 1.50; 95%CI 1.15 to 1.97; P=0.003), anxiety or depression (OR 1.88; 95%CI 1.08 to 3.25; P=0.02) (Zhang et al 2013) and depression symptoms alone (OR 1.63; 95%CI 1.32 to 2.02) (Hu et al 2015)
  • blood group: AB versus non-AB blood group increased risk in women overall (OR 2.42; 95%CI 1.63 to 3.58) and in primigravid women (OR 2.44; 95%CI 1.46 to 4.07) (Alpoim et al 2013)
  • assisted reproductive technology: in contrast to the findings on prevalence above, systematic reviews suggested that risk was increased in women receiving donor oocytes (OR 4.34; 95%CI 3.10 to 6.06; P<0.0001) (Blazquez et al 2016; Masoudian et al 2016) or sperm (OR 1.63; 95%CI 1.36 to 1.95) (Gonzalez-Comadran et al 2014)
  • immunological factors: interferon-gamma levels were higher in women with pre-eclampsia than in controls (SMD 0.93; 95%CI 0.07 to 1.79) (Yang et al 2014)
  • micronutrient levels: levels of vitamin C and E were lower in women with pre-eclampsia than in controls but not when levels in mild and severe subtypes were analysed (Cohen et al 2015); risk was lower among women with vitamin D level >50 nmol/L vs <50 nmol/L (OR 0.58; 95%CI 0.32 to 1.07)(Hypponen et al 2013); and levels of copper were higher (Fan et al 2016) and levels of zinc (SMD –0.587; 95%CI –0.963 to –0.212) (Ma et al 2015) and selenium (MD –6.47 mug/l; 95%CI –11.24 to –1.7; p = 0.008) (Xu et al 2016) lower among women with pre-eclampsia than among controls
  • gynaecological and obstetric factors: there was no significant association between risk of pre-eclampsia and fetal sex (RR 1.01; 95%CI 0.97 to 1.05) (Jaskolka et al 2016) or interpregnancy interval 2–4 vs <2 years (aOR 1.01; 95%CI 0.95 to 1.07) or 2–4 vs >2 years (aOR 1.10; 95%CI 1.02 to 1.19)(Cormick et al 2016) but a higher risk following chorionic villus sampling compared to amniocentesis (OR 2.47; 95%CI 1.14 to 5.33)(Basaran et al 2016)
  • periodontal disease: while reviews of observational studies showed an effect on risk (Sgolastra et al 2013; Wei et al 2013; Huang et al 2014), a review of RCTs found no significant effect (OR 1.00; 95%CI 0.78 to 1.28) (Kunnen et al 2010). A recent Cochrane review found no clear effect of treatment for periodontal disease on risk of pre-eclampsia (RR 1.10; 95%CI 0.74 to 1.62; 3 studies; very low-quality evidence) (Iheozor-Ejiofor et al 2017).

Smoking (RR 0.67; 95%CI 0.60 to 0.75)(Wei et al 2015) and exposure to environmental carbon monoxide (aOR 0.63; 95%CI 0.55 to 0.71)(Zhai et al 2012) appeared to reduce risk of pre-eclampsia but are associated with other negative health effects. There was insufficient evidence to assess the relationship between pre-eclampsia and shift work (Palmer et al 2013).

26.2.2 Preventive measures

Preventive treatment with low-dose aspirin in women at high risk and calcium supplementation in women with low dietary intake is recommended in the United Kingdom (NICE updated 2011), Canada (SOGC 2014) and Australia (Lowe et al 2015) and by the WHO (WHO 2011).

Calcium

There is strong evidence that calcium supplementation is of benefit for women at risk of pre-eclampsia if dietary intake is low (Patrelli et al 2012; Hofmeyr et al 2014). The WHO defines low dietary intake as <900 mg per day and the Australian and New Zealand Nutrient Reference Values recommend an intake of 1,000 mg per day in pregnant women, 1,300 mg if they are younger than 18 years (NHMRC 2005). In Australia, calcium intake is low in relation to recommendations for some girls and women of reproductive age (NHMRC 2011). The sources and recommended number of serves of calcium-rich foods during pregnancy are discussed in Section 11.2.1.

Recommendation

  • Grade A
  • 25

Advise women at high risk of developing pre-eclampsia that calcium supplementation is beneficial if dietary intake is low.

Approved by NHMRC in June 2014; expires June 2019 UNDER REVIEW

Recommendation

  • Practice point
  • KK

If a woman has a low dietary calcium intake, advise her to increase her intake of calcium-rich foods.

Approved by NHMRC in June 2014; expires June 2019 UNDER REVIEW

Effectiveness of aspirin in preventing pre-eclampsia 

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have found that: 

  • low-dose aspirin (defined as <75 mg/day) has moderate benefits when used for prevention of pre-eclampsia (RR 0.83; 95%CI: 0.77 to 0.89); higher doses (>75 mg/day) may be more effective but adverse effects may also increase (Duley et al 2007);
  • there was a reduction in risk among women at high risk (ie with previous pre-eclampsia) (RR 0.79; 95%CI: 0.65 to 0.97) but not those at low risk with use of low-dose aspirin (defined as 40–160 mg/day) (Trivedi 2011)
  • the effect of low-dose aspirin (defined as 50–150 mg/day) was only significant for preterm pre-eclampsia (RR 0.11 95%CI 0.04 to 0.33) (Roberge et al 2012).

Recommendation

  • Grade B
  • 26

Advise women at moderate–high risk of pre-eclampsia that low-dose aspirin from early pregnancy may be of benefit in its prevention.

Approved by NHMRC in June 2014; expires June 2019 UNDER REVIEW

Vitamins

There is insufficient evidence that the risk of pre-eclampsia is reduced by supplementing vitamin B2 (Neugebauer et al 2006) or vitamins C and E (Salles et al 2012). A meta-analysis found associations between supplementation with vitamins C (1,000 mg) and E (400 IU) in women at risk of pre-eclampsia and some adverse effects: gestational hypertension (RR 1.11; 95%CI 1.05 to 1.17) and premature rupture of the membranes (RR 1.73; 95%CI 1.34 to 2.23) (Conde-Agudelo et al 2011).

Recommendation

  • Grade B
  • 27

Advise women that vitamins C and E are not of benefit in preventing pre-eclampsia.

Approved by NHMRC in June 2014; expires June 2019 UNDER REVIEW

Physical activity

Systematic reviews found a trend towards a protective effect from leisure time or recreational physical activity during pregnancy in case-control studies (RR 0.65, 95%CI 0.47 to 0.89 or OR 0.77, 0.64 to 0.91, p < 0.01) (Kasawara et al 2012; Aune et al 2014) but not in cohort studies (OR 0.99, 0.93 to 1.05, p= 0.81) (Kasawara et al 2012). Physical activity during pregnancy has general health benefits (see Section 11.4).

Salt intake

Reducing salt intake is unlikely to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia (Duley 2011). However, avoiding foods with added salt has other health benefits (NHMRC 2013).

26.2.3 Identifying women with clinical signs of pre-eclampsia

Routine measurement of blood pressure and testing for proteinuria at each antenatal visit are recommended in the United Kingdom (NICE updated 2016). However, routine testing for proteinuria is not recommended internationally (Tranquilli et al 2014), in the United States (ACOG 2013) or Australia (Lowe et al 2015; RANZCOG 2015).

  • Hypertension: Women with new onset hypertension (defined as a blood pressure ≥140 mmHg systolic and/ or ≥90 mmHg diastolic) that occurs after 20 weeks pregnancy should be assessed for signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia (Lowe et al 2015).
  • Proteinuria: Routine testing for proteinuria is not helpful in predicting pre-eclampsia and should be confined to women with increased blood pressure or sudden weight gain. Proteinuria should not be considered mandatory in making a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia (Lowe et al 2015).

Measurement of blood pressure and testing for proteinuria are discussed in chapter 24 and chapter 25.

Recommendation

  • Consensus-based
  • XXIII

Routinely measure blood pressure to identify new onset hypertension.

Approved by NHMRC in June 2014; expires June 2019 UNDER REVIEW

Recommendation

  • Consensus-based
  • XXIV

Recommend testing for proteinuria at each antenatal visit if a woman has risk factors for or clinical indications of pre-eclampsia, in particular, raised blood pressure.

Approved by NHMRC in October 2017; expires October 2022 UNDER REVIEW

Where possible, women with clinical signs of pre-eclampsia (hypertension, proteinuria, fetal growth restriction) should be referred for specialist assessment and management. Section 26.5 includes resources on the management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

26.2.4 Predicting pre-eclampsia

Predicting which women will develop pre-eclampsia is an area that is rapidly changing. A range of measures has been used to further predict risk of pre-eclampsia, including biophysical (eg mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility) and biochemical (eg pregnancy-associated placental protein-A [PAPP-A], free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin [b-hCG], placental growth hormone [PIGF] and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 [sFlt-1]:PlGF ratio) markers, both individually and in combination with maternal characteristics. The sFIt:PIGF ratio showed high sensitivity and specificity for onset of pre-eclampsia within 4 weeks at 19–25 weeks (100; 100%), 26–31 weeks (83; 99%) (Ohkuchi et al 2013) and 24–36 weeks (66.2; 83.1%) (Zeisler et al 2016).

While it is clear that maternal characteristics combined with biochemical and biophysical markers are more sensitive in predicting pre-eclampsia than maternal characteristics alone, there is currently insufficient evidence to support a recommendation on any particular approach. Existing algorithms are more effective in predicting early onset pre-eclampsia (which has very low prevalence), have low sensitivity in predicting late onset pre-eclampsia and have a false positive rate of 5–10%. A systematic review noted that the reliability and validity of models may be limited by methodological deficiencies (Brunelli & Prefumo 2015) and an external validation study found lower performance than was reported (Oliveira et al 2014). An analysis of the cost-effectiveness of screening for and diagnosing pre-eclampsia found that routine use of biomarkers will be feasible only when accuracy is significantly increased (Zakiyah et al 2015).

26.3 Discussing risk of pre-eclampsia

It is important that women are given information about the symptoms of pre-eclampsia from early pregnancy.

Recommendation

  • Practice point
  • LL

Give women information about the urgency of seeking advice from a health professional if they experience: headache, visual disturbance (such as blurring or flashing before the eyes), epigastric pain (just below the ribs), vomiting and/or rapid swelling of the face, hands or feet. 

Approved by NHMRC in June 2014; expires June 2019 UNDER REVIEW

26.4 Practice summary: pre-eclampsia

When

Early in pregnancy.

Who

  • Midwife
  • GP
  • obstetrician
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Practitioner
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Worker
  • multicultural health worker.

What

  • Discuss risk factors for pre-eclampsia early in pregnancy
    Explain that the likelihood of pre-eclampsia is increased if a woman has certain risk factors.
  • Discuss pre-eclampsia screening
    Explain that if a woman has high blood pressure and/or proteinuria, she will require additional care during the rest of her pregnancy.
  • Discuss symptoms of pre-eclampsia with women at high risk
    Explain the importance of seeking medical advice immediately if symptoms occur.
  • Take a holistic approach
    Ask women at risk of pre-eclampsia about how many serves of calcium-rich foods they eat each day (see Chapter 11). Discuss low cost and culturally appropriate strategies for increasing calcium intake. Advise women who develop pre-eclampsia of the need for ongoing surveillance due to their increased risk of developing hypertension.
  • Consider referral
    Women at risk of pre-eclampsia who have a low dietary calcium intake may benefit from referral to an accredited practising dietitian.
  • Document and follow-up
    Note risk factors and the results of blood pressure measurement and proteinuria testing in the woman’s antenatal record. Further investigations may be warranted if increases in blood pressure or new proteinuria are identified at subsequent visits.

26.5 Resources

References

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  • Aune D, Saugstad OD, Henriksen T et al (2014) Physical activity and the risk of preeclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology 25(3): 331-43.
  • Bartsch E, Medcalf KE, Park AL et al (2016) Clinical risk factors for pre-eclampsia determined in early pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis of large cohort studies. BMJ 353: i1753.
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  • Hilder L, Zhichao Z, Parker M et al (2014) Australia’s mothers and babies 2012. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
  • Hofmeyr GJ, Belizan JM, von Dadelszen P (2014) Low-dose calcium supplementation for preventing pre-eclampsia: a systematic review and commentary. BJOG 121(8): 951-7.
  • Hu R, Li Y, Zhang Z et al (2015) Antenatal depressive symptoms and the risk of preeclampsia or operative deliveries: a meta-analysis. PLoS One 10(3): e0119018.
  • Huang X, Wang J, Liu J et al (2014) Maternal periodontal disease and risk of preeclampsia: a meta-analysis. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 34(5): 729-35.
  • Humphrey MD, Bonello MR, Chughtai A et al (2015) Maternal Deaths in Australia 2008–2012. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
  • Hypponen E, Cavadino A, Williams D et al (2013) Vitamin D and pre-eclampsia: original data, systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Nutr Metab 63(4): 331-40.
  • Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Middleton P, Esposito M et al (2017) Treating periodontal disease for preventing adverse birth outcomes in pregnant women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6: CD005297.
  • Jaskolka D, Retnakaran R, Zinman B et al (2016) Fetal sex and maternal risk of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG.
  • Judd F, Komiti A, Sheehan P et al (2014) Adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes in women with severe mental illness: to what extent can they be prevented? Schizophr Res 157(1-3): 305-9.
  • Kasawara KT, do Nascimento SL, Costa ML et al (2012) Exercise and physical activity in the prevention of pre-eclampsia: systematic review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 91(10): 1147-57.
  • Kunnen A, van Doormaal JJ, Abbas F et al (2010) Periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia: a systematic review. J Clin Periodontol 37(12): 1075-87.
  • Lowe SA, Bowyer L, KLust K et al (2015) The SOMANZ Guidelines for the Management of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 55(1): 11–16.
  • Ma Y, Shen X, Zhang D (2015) The Relationship between Serum Zinc Level and Preeclampsia: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 7(9): 7806-20.
  • Magann EF, Doherty DA, Sandlin AT et al (2013) The effects of an increasing gradient of maternal obesity on pregnancy outcomes. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 53(3): 250-7.
  • Masoudian P, Nasr A, de Nanassy J et al (2016) Oocyte donation pregnancies and the risk of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 214(3): 328-39.
  • Neugebauer J, Zanre Y, Wacker J (2006) Riboflavin supplementation and preeclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 93(2): 136-7.
  • Nguyen TN, Faulkner D, Frayne JS et al (2012) Obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with severe mental illness at a specialist antenatal clinic. MJA Open 1(Suppl 1): 26-29.
  • NHMRC (2005) Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council.
  • NHMRC (2011) A Modelling System to Inform Revision of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council.
  • NHMRC (2013) Australian Dietary Guidelines. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council.
  • NICE (updated 2011) Hypertension in Pregnancy: the Management of Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy. London: National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence.
  • NICE (updated 2016) Antenatal Care for Uncomplicated Pregnancies. London: National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence.
  • Ohkuchi A, Hirashima C, Takahashi K et al (2013) Onset threshold of the plasma levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1/ placental growth factor ratio for predicting the imminent onset of preeclampsia within 4 weeks after blood sampling at 19-31 weeks of gestation. Hypertens Res 36(12): 1073-80.
  • Oliveira N, Doyle LE, Atlas RO et al (2014) External validity of first-trimester algorithms in the prediction of pre-eclampsia disease severity. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 44(3): 286-92.
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Last updated: 
21 November 2018